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The well-trained U. Army decisively defeated the Indians and the battle ended with the adoption of the Treaty of Greenville. In , a series of battles known as the Cherokee Wars began from the valleys of Virginia to North Carolina and southward. Two peace treaties forced the Cherokee to give up millions of acres of land to settlers, provoking them to fight for the British in the Revolutionary War , hoping to keep what land they had left.

Indians had to choose sides or try to stay neutral when the American Revolution broke out. Others, including the Potawatomi and the Delaware, sided with American patriots.

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But no matter which side they fought on, Native Americans were negatively impacted. They were left out of peace talks and lost additional land. After the war, some Americans retaliated against those Indian tribes that had supported the British. Cherokee Chief Dragging Canoe led bands of Indians against white settlers in the South from through At the Battle of the Bluffs, he led warriors to destroy Fort Nashborough in Tennessee, but a pack of unleashed hunting dogs forced them back during the battle.

Harrison prevailed, however, and the Shawnee retreated north. Tecumseh died in the battle, leading many Indians to abandon the British cause. The battle ended with the signing of the Treaty of Fort Jackson and the Creeks ceding almost two million acres of land. In the Second Seminole War , the Indians fought to retain their land in the Florida Everglades but were almost wiped out.

In , the government forcibly removed around 15, Cherokee from their homeland and made them walk more than 1, miles west. Over 3, Indians died on the grueling route, known as the Trail of Tears.

The battle, known as the Black Hawk War , was a disaster for the Indians who were greatly outnumbered by the U. Army, militias and other Indian tribes. When they set up camp at Sand Creek, volunteer Colorado soldiers attacked, scattering them while slaughtering men, women and children. For two years, an Indian coalition led by Lakota Chief Red Cloud attacked workers, settlers and soldiers to save their native lands.

Their persistence paid off when the U. Army left the area and signed the Treaty of Fort Laramie in After the discovery of gold in the Black Hills, however, the U. Despite the decisive Indian victory, the U. The U. Personalized Reading List. How-To Guides. RBdigital Magazines.

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Other Editions and Formats. Long-simmering tensions between Georgia and the Cherokee Nation were brought to a crisis by the discovery of gold near Dahlonega, Georgia , in , resulting in the Georgia Gold Rush , the second gold rush in U. Hopeful gold speculators began trespassing on Cherokee lands, and pressure mounted to fulfill the Compact of in which the US Government promised to extinguish Indian land claims in the state of Georgia. When Georgia moved to extend state laws over Cherokee lands in , the matter went to the U.

Supreme Court. In Cherokee Nation v. Georgia , the Marshall court ruled that the Cherokee Nation was not a sovereign and independent nation, and therefore refused to hear the case. Georgia , the Court ruled that Georgia could not impose laws in Cherokee territory, since only the national government — not state governments — had authority in Indian affairs. Worcester v Georgia is associated with Andrew Jackson's famous, though apocryphal, quote "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it! Fearing open warfare between federal troops and the Georgia militia, Jackson decided not to enforce Cherokee claims against the state of Georgia.

He was already embroiled in a constitutional crisis with South Carolina i. Congress had given Jackson authority to negotiate removal treaties, exchanging Indian land in the East for land west of the Mississippi River. Jackson used the dispute with Georgia to put pressure on the Cherokees to sign a removal treaty. The final treaty, passed in Congress by a single vote, and signed by President Andrew Jackson , was imposed by his successor President Martin Van Buren.

Van Buren allowed Georgia , Tennessee , North Carolina , and Alabama an armed force of 7, militiamen, army regulars, and volunteers under General Winfield Scott to relocate about 13, Cherokees to Cleveland, Tennessee. After the initial roundup, the U. Former Cherokee lands were immediately opened to settlement. Most of the deaths during the journey were caused by disease, malnutrition, and exposure during an unusually cold winter.

Because of the diseases, the Indians were not allowed to go into any towns or villages along the way; many times this meant traveling much farther to go around them. They were not allowed passage until the ferry had serviced all others wishing to cross and were forced to take shelter under "Mantle Rock", a shelter bluff on the Kentucky side, until "Berry had nothing better to do". Many died huddled together at Mantle Rock waiting to cross. Several Cherokee were murdered by locals. The Cherokee filed a lawsuit against the U.

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There is the coldest weather in Illinois I ever experienced anywhere. We are compelled to cut through the ice to get water for ourselves and animals.

minddislore.tk It snows here every two or three days at the fartherest. It is unknown when we shall cross the river I fought through the civil war and have seen men shot to pieces and slaughtered by thousands, but the Cherokee removal was the cruelest work I ever knew. It eventually took almost three months to cross the 60 miles 97 kilometres on land between the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. However a few years before forced removal, some Cherokee who opted to leave their homes voluntarily chose a water-based route through the Tennessee, Ohio and Mississippi rivers.

It took only 21 days, but the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated were weary of water travel. Removed Cherokees initially settled near Tahlequah, Oklahoma. There were some exceptions to removal. Approximately Cherokees evaded the U. Those Cherokees who lived on private, individually owned lands rather than communally owned tribal land were not subject to removal.


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In North Carolina, about Cherokees, sometimes referred to as the Oconaluftee Cherokee due to their settlement near to the river of the same name , lived on land in the Great Smoky Mountains owned by a white man named William Holland Thomas who had been adopted by Cherokees as a boy , and were thus not subject to removal. Added to this were some Cherokee from the Nantahala area allowed to stay in the Qualla Boundary after assisting the U. Army in hunting down and capturing the family of the old prophet, Tsali who faced a firing squad after capture. Interior Department employee Guion Miller created a list using several rolls and applications to verify tribal enrollment for the distribution of funds, known as the Guion Miller Roll.

The applications received documented over , individuals; the court approved more than 30, individuals to share in the funds.